Precise and exact; to the point; consistent with or exactly conforming to a truth, standard, rule, model, convention or known facts; meticulous – without any mistakes.
Affiliative texts are those texts which involve “memberships, formal and informal, in online communities centred around various forms of media” (Jenkins et. al. 2006) – largely, social media sites and platforms; while collaborative texts involve people working together, formally or informally online, “to complete tasks and develop new knowledge such as through Wikipedia, alternative reality games, spoiling” (Jenkins et. al. 2006) and can be aided by specialised ‘collaboration software’ or accomplished via social media; for example, as with crowdsourcing.
Use, utilise or employ in a particular situation.
Acceptable; suitable or fitting for a particular purpose, circumstance, context, etc.
Give reasons for or against something; challenge or debate an issue or idea; persuade, prove or try to prove by giving reasons.
A particular part of a feature of something; a facet, phase or part of a whole.
An outlook or a specific feeling about something. Our values underlie our attitudes. Attitudes can be expressed by what we say, do and wear.
The group of readers, listeners or viewers that the writer, designer, filmmaker or speaker is addressing. Audience includes learners in the classroom, an individual, the wider community, review writers, critics and the implied audience.
Make clear or intelligible; explain; make a statement or situation less confused and more comprehensible.
Free from confusion, uncertainty, or doubt; easily seen, heard or understood.
Having a natural or due agreement of parts; connected; consistent; logical, orderly; well-structured and makes sense; rational, with parts that are harmonious; having an internally consistent relation of parts.
Characterised by being united, bound together or having integrated meaning; forming a united whole.
Convey knowledge and understandings to others.
Communication processes include those made with the aid of augmentative and alternative forms of communication.
- uses structure
- awareness of choices of register
- demonstrates an awareness of the need to vary structure, style, tone and vocabulary to meet requirements of audience, context and purpose
- identifies cues and conventions to establish and maintain formal and casual conversations using turn-taking, rebuttals and interruptions
- uses introductory phrases to indicate that an opinion or a fact is being offered
- uses dependent clauses
- use appropriate grammatical forms and vocabulary
- uses a range of tenses
- uses some common idioms
- uses vocabulary that is sufficiently broad for both every day and more specific contexts
- refines intended meaning, varying speed and changing tone or emphasis when speaking
- uses pronunciation, stress patterns and intonation.
Uses interactional strategies such as non-verbal feedback in order to support effective communication.
Display recognition of similarities and differences and recognise the significance of these similarities and differences.
In an efficient and capable way; in an acceptable and satisfactory, though not outstanding, way.
Understand the meaning or nature of; grasp mentally.
Connecting is recognising relationships between texts and between texts and own lives.
In this course learners make connections between:
- texts and their own life
- elements of texts; for example, words and images
- common ideas, experiences, and stories.
Identifiable links between texts and contexts.
Formed after careful thought.
Agreeing or accordant; compatible; not self-opposed or self-contradictory, constantly adhering to the same principles; acting in the same way over time, especially so as to be fair or accurate; unchanging in nature, standard or effect over time; not containing any logical contradictions (of an argument); constant in achievement or effect over a period of time.
Texts created from 2000 onwards.
The environment in which a text is responded to or created. Context can include the general social, historical and cultural conditions in which a text is responded to and created, the context of culture, or the specific features of its immediate environment context of situation. The term is also used to refer to the wording surrounding an unfamiliar word that a reader or listener uses to understand its meaning.
Show the exercise of restraint or direction over; held in check; restrained, managed or kept within certain bounds; in command of.
An accepted practice that has developed over time and is generally used and understood; for example, the use of specific structural aspects of texts such as in report writing with sections for introduction, background, discussion and recommendations. Conventions can be techniques, features or elements that belong to a genre. In order to belong to a particular genre, a text should adhere to, abide by or follow the conventions of that genre.
Free from error – what is generally accepted and approved of.
Develop and produce spoken, written or multimodal texts in print or digital forms.
creative or expressive texts
Creative or expressive texts are those multimodal texts which utilise more conventional, recognised creative and expressive forms; for example, fictional, short or feature films, animation, music videos and graphic novels or comics, that are accessed via a range of platforms; and those texts which experiment with form, “…producing new creative forms, such as digital sampling, skinning and modding, fan videomaking… zines, mashups” (Jenkins et.al. 2006), often appearing in digital, participatory spaces.
critical and creative thinking
See General Capabilities.
Consciously and intentionally; on purpose.
Prove or make clear by argument, reasoning or evidence, illustrating with practical example; show by example; give a practical exhibition.
Give an account, written or spoken, of a situation, event, pattern or process, or of the characteristics or features of something.
In English: begin to build an opinion or idea.
Audio, visual or multimodal texts produced through digital or electronic technology, which may be interactive and include animations or hyperlinks. Examples of digital texts include DVDs, websites and e-literature.
For the purposes of this document, the term discipline is used to describe a recognised field of study or body of knowledge in a well-planned structure. Disciplines are defined by specialist knowledge, theories, concepts, methodology and terminology.
Talk or write about a topic, taking into account different issues and ideas.
Successful in producing the intended, desired or expected result; meeting the assigned purpose.
A component or constituent part of a complex whole; a fundamental, essential or irreducible part of a composite entity.
Texts that are encountered in people’s daily lives; for example, transport schedules, maps, emails, invitations, casual conversations, making an appointment with a doctor, dentist or health centre, an interaction with a retail person, a waiter taking orders and storytelling.
Investigate, inspect or scrutinise; inquire or search into; consider or discuss an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue.
In this course exhibit is synonymous with presentation and sharing.
Exhibition refers to projects, presentations or projects through which learners’ exhibit what they have learned, usually as a way of demonstrating whether and to what degree they have achieved expected learning outcomes.
An exhibition may take many forms or text types. Interacting with others is part of this process.
Adjustments should be made based on learners’ capabilities.
A presentation is a means of communication involving oracy and the use of multimodal elements or aides.
Try out or test new ideas or methods, especially in order to discover or prove something; undertake or perform a scientific procedure to test a hypothesis, make a discovery or demonstrate a known fact.
Clearly and distinctly expressing all that is meant; unequivocal; clearly developed or formulated; leaving nothing merely implied or suggested.
Look into, both closely and broadly; scrutinise; inquire into or discuss something in detail.
Convey, show or communicate; for example, a thought, opinion, feeling, emotion, idea or viewpoint; in words, art, music or movement, convey or suggest a representation of; depict.
Spoken or written with ease; able to speak or write smoothly, easily or readily; articulate; eloquent.
Produce, create ideas.
The language we use and the description of language as a system. In describing language, attention is paid to both structure or form and meaning or function at the level of the word, the sentence and the text.
In this course, this word has an open meaning and can be interpreted as understandings, thoughts, notions, opinions, views or beliefs.
To think of an idea or ideas.
establish or indicate who or what someone or something is.
Not suitable or proper in the circumstances.
Lacking agreement, as one thing with another, or two or more things in relation to each other; at variance; not consistent; not in keeping; not in accordance; incompatible; incongruous.
Knowledgeable; learned; having relevant knowledge; being conversant with the topic; based on an understanding of the facts of the situation, of a decision or judgment.
New and original; introducing new ideas; original and creative in thinking.
A learner's ability to:
- identify what they want to know and what they can achieve.
- pose researchable questions.
- Brainstorm or ideate.
- locate appropriate sources of information.
- gather, sort and organise information.
- engage personally, making connections with texts and between texts.
- engage critically – making judgements about texts and the ways they are constructed through basic analysis.
- Experimenting - applying knowledge and skills creatively and critically to develop deep understanding; experimenting with language, form, mode and medium to express ideas and opinions.
- making decisions and putting ideas into action.
- present information in appropriate ways.
- reflect on what they have learned and the inquiry process.
- apply their knowledge in new contexts.
In this course, they do this through the key elements of transdisciplinary learning:
- engage and ideate
- connect and apply
- exhibit and reflect.
In turn inquiry skills are enacted and developed through the following learning processes:
- engaging critically
- engaging personally
Showing understanding of a situation or process; understanding relationships in complex situations; informed by observation and deduction.
In this course, the word ‘intend’ has an open meaning and can be interpreted as understandings, thoughts, notions, opinions, views or beliefs.
Draw meaning from.
An assessment technique that requires students to research a specific problem, question, issue, design challenge or hypothesis through the collection, analysis and synthesis of primary data, secondary data, or both; it uses research or investigative practices to assess a range of cognitions in a particular context; an investigation occurs over an extended and defined period of time.
Matters of personal or public concern that are in dispute; things which directly or indirectly affect a person or members of a society and are considered to be problems. Many issues are raised in texts and it is for the reader or audience to identify these.
Ethical issues: moral conduct of individuals through which they identify what is good, bad, right or wrong. Ethical issues arise where people go against an accepted behavioural pattern.
The ethics of the actions and motivations of individuals and groups, understanding the ethical dimensions of research and information, debating ethical dilemmas and applying ethics in a range of situations. The processes of reflecting on and interrogating core ethical issues and concepts underlie all areas of the curriculum. These include justice, right and wrong, freedom, truth, identity, empathy, goodness and abuse.
Social issues relate to the ways actions affect society. Social issues can be defined as problems or matters which have an influence over a large population. It may affect negatively to a considerable number of individuals in a particular society as a whole.
Of crucial importance.
Give reasons or evidence to support an answer, response or conclusion; show or prove how an argument, statement or conclusion is right or reasonable.
The features of language that support meaning; for example, sentence structure, noun group or phrase, vocabulary, punctuation, figurative language framing and camera angles.
They relate to oral, written, multimodal texts and all text types.
Choices in language features and text structures together define a type of text and shape its meaning. These choices vary according to the purpose of a text, its subject matter, audience, and mode or medium of production.
Identify where something is found.
Rational and valid; internally consistent; reasonable; reasoning in accordance with the principles and rules of logic or formal argument; characterised by or capable of clear, sound reasoning of an action, decision, etc.; expected or sensible under the circumstances.
According to the rules of logic or formal argument; in a way that shows clear, sound reasoning; in a way that is expected or sensible.
In the context of this course, meanings in texts are shaped by purpose, cultural contexts and social situations.
A resource used in the production of texts, including tools and materials used; for example, digital text and a computer, writing and a pen or a typewriter.
The various processes of communication: listening, speaking, reading, viewing and writing, or creating. Modes are also used to refer to the semiotic, meaning-making, resources associated with these communicative processes, such as sound, print, image and gesture.
mode appropriate features
- written; for example, conventional spelling and punctuation
- spoken or signed; for example, pronunciation, phrasing and pausing, audibility and clarity, volume, pace and silence
- non-verbal; for example, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, stance and movement
- complementary features, including digital features such as graphics, still and moving images, design elements, music and sound effects.
Uses a combination of at least two modes; for example, spoken, written, delivered at the same time, to communicate ideas and information to a live or virtual audience for a particular purpose. The selected modes are integrated so that each mode contributes significantly to the response.
A combination of two or more communication modes; for example, print, image and spoken text, as in film or computer presentations.
Limited in range or scope; lacking breadth of view; limited in amount; barely sufficient or adequate; restricted.
nonverbal communication or cues
Behaviours, other than words, that transmit meaning; for example, body language, inflexion, eye contact or posture.
Arrange, order; form as, or into, a whole consisting of interdependent or coordinated parts, especially for harmonious or united action.
Systematically ordered and arranged; having a formal organisational structure to arrange, coordinate and carry out activities.
Distinguished or different from others or from the ordinary; noteworthy.
An assessment technique that requires students to demonstrate a range of cognitive, technical, creative and expressive skills and to apply theoretical and conceptual understandings, through the psychomotor domain; it involves student application of identified skills when responding to a task that involves solving a problem, providing a solution or conveying meaning or intent; a performance is developed over an extended and defined period of time.
Capable of changing someone’s ideas, opinions or beliefs; appearing worthy of approval or acceptance, of an argument or statement; communicating reasonably or credibly.
point of view
‘Point of view’ in a text is the position from which the subject matter of a text is designed to be perceived and judged. The writer, speaker or director of the text controls what we see and how we relate to the situation, characters or ideas in the text.
Producing is another word for creating meaning, constructing or creating texts, and those texts might be written or multimodal. There is a range of non-fiction forms that students use to produce texts; for example:
- transactional texts: lists or applications
- informative texts: reports or investigations
- expository texts: essays
- persuasive texts: letters to the editor or documentaries.
Learners may produce fiction texts; for example, short stories, blogs, poetry, plays, short films or YouTube stories and uploads. Learners might engage in discussions, role plays, interview scenarios, debates, public speaking and slideshow presentations in live, recorded and online environments.
Develop or improve so as to be precise, exact or subtle.
Think about deeply and carefully.
In this course learners use reflective thinking to consider why things happen and what can be learnt from these experiences.
The use of language and detail in a text appropriate for its purpose, audience and context; a register suited to one kind of text may be inappropriate in another; the composer makes deliberate choices when constructing a text in relation to the language, subject matter, and the role and relationship with the audience; for example, the degree of formality or informality for a particular purpose or in a particular social situation
Bearing upon or connected with the matter in hand; to the purpose; applicable and pertinent; having a direct bearing on.
Use words, images, symbols or signs to convey meaning.
Representation refers to the way people, events, issues or subjects are presented in a text. The term implies that texts are not mirrors of the real world: they are constructions of ‘reality’. These constructions are partially shaped through the writer’s use of conventions and techniques.
Provide an answer; reply.
Choose in preference to another or others; pick out.
Place in a continuous or connected series; arrange in a particular order.
Clearly defined or identified; precise and clear in making statements or issuing instructions; having a special application or reference; explicit, or definite; peculiar or proper to something, as qualities, characteristics, effects, etc.
Standard Australian English
Standard Australian English; the form of Australian English that conforms to the perceived notion of appropriate usages for serious writing; it is English which, in its spoken and written forms, is the English of more formal communication throughout the Australian community; it adheres to broadly accepted rules of syntax and pronunciation and uses vocabulary that is more formal than colloquial; SAE operates to facilitate communication across ethnic, social, occupational and cultural groups and can be used as a benchmark against which to recognise Australian dialects and cultural varieties of English.
Verb: Give a pattern, organisation or arrangement to; construct or arrange according to a plan.
Noun: In English, an arrangement of words into larger units; for example, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs and whole texts, in line with cultural, intercultural and textual conventions.
Arranged in a given organised sequence so as to produce a desired result.
Subject matter is the body of information, mental procedures and psychomotor procedures (see Marzano & Kendall 2007, 2008) that are necessary for students learning and engagement with this course.
Fine or delicate in meaning or intent; making use of indirect methods; not straightforward or obvious.
Corroborated; given greater credibility by providing evidence.
Represent or identify by a symbol or symbols.
In this course texts refer to oral, written and multimodal.
Communication of meaning produced in any medium that incorporates language, including sound, print, film, digital and multimedia representations; texts include written, spoken, nonverbal or visual communication of meaning. They may be extended unified works or series of related pieces.
Texts include all forms of augmentative and alternative communication; for example, gesture, signing, real objects, photographs, pictographs, pictograms and braille.
See conventions and mode appropriate features.
The ways in which information is organised in different types of texts; for example, chapter headings, subheadings, tables of contents, indexes and glossaries, overviews, introductory and concluding paragraphs, sequencing, topic sentences, taxonomies and cause and effect. Choices in text structures and language features together define a text type and shape its meaning. Examples of text structures in literary texts include sonnets, monologues and hypertext.
Classifications of texts according to the particular purposes they are designed to achieve. In general, in the senior courses in the English curriculum, texts are classified as imaginative, interpretive, persuasive or analytical types of texts, although these distinctions are neither static nor discrete and particular texts can belong to more than one category.
Texts whose primary purpose is to identify, examine and draw conclusions about the elements or components that make up other texts. Analytical texts develop an argument or consider or advance an interpretation. Examples of these texts include commentaries, essays in criticism, reflective or discursive responses and reviews.
Texts whose primary purpose is to entertain or provoke thought through their imaginative use of literary elements. They are recognised for their form, style and artistic or aesthetic value. These texts include novels, traditional tales, poetry, stories, plays, fiction for young adults and children, including picture books, and multimodal texts, such as film.
Texts whose primary purpose is to explain and interpret personalities, events, ideas, representations or concepts. They include autobiography, biography, feature articles, documentary, satire and allegory.
Texts whose primary purpose is to put forward a viewpoint and persuade a reader, viewer or listener. They form a significant part of modern communication in both print and digital environments. They include advertising, debates, arguments, discussions, polemics and essays and articles.
Carried out through or applied to the whole of something; carried out completely and carefully; including all that is required; complete with attention to every detail; not superficial or partial; performed or written with care and completeness; taking pains to do something carefully and completely.
A division of, or sub-section within, a module; all topics and sub-topics within a module are interrelated.
For the purposes of this document, transdisciplinary is used to describe an approach to teaching and learning, which enables students to use learning or ways of working from multiple disciplines, to explore a relevant concept, issue, or problem. It integrates the perspectives of a range of disciplines, resulting in a new and deeper understanding of the concept, issue or problem.
Unequal; not properly corresponding or agreeing; irregular; varying; not uniform; not equally balanced.
Operate or put into effect; apply knowledge or rules to put theory into practice.
Characteristics, qualities, philosophical and emotional stances; for example, moral principles or standards often shared with others in a cultural group.
Adjective apt or liable to vary or change; changeable; inconsistent; readily susceptible or capable of variation; fluctuating, uncertain.
Observe with purpose, understanding and critical awareness. Some students participate in viewing activities by listening to an adult or peer describing the visual features of text, diagrams, pictures and multimedia.
In words, art, music or movement, conveying or indicating feeling, spirit, character, etc.; a way of expressing or representing something; vivid, effective or persuasive communication.
Plan, compose, edit and publish texts in print or digital forms. Writing usually involves activities using pencils, pens or word processors; using drawings, models or photos to represent text; using a scribe to record responses or produce recorded responses.