Identify components and the relationship between them: draw out and relate implications.
artificial intelligence (AI)
The ability of machines to mimic human capabilities in a way that we would consider 'smart. In conventional computing, a programmer writes a computer program that precisely instructs a computer what to do to solve a particular problem. With AI, however, the programmer instead writes a program that allows the computer to learn to solve a problem by itself.
The creation and application of technologies to produce and deliver goods and services with minimal human intervention. The implementation of automation technologies, techniques and processes improve the efficiency, reliability, and speed of many tasks that were previously performed by humans.
Automation is being used in a number of areas such as manufacturing, transport, utilities, defence, facilities, operations and information technology.
The application of engineering principles, practices, and technologies to the fields of medicine and biology especially in solving problems and improving care, as in the design of medical devices and diagnostic equipment or the creation of biomaterials and pharmaceuticals.
Inspiration of functions found in nature for use and adaptation in the design of a product, service, environment, or to solve human problems. For example, Velcro fastening was inspired by small hooks on the end of burr needles. Termite mounds that maintain a constant temperature through air vents inspired architects when designing cooling for buildings.
A descriptive analysis of a person, group, product or event which can be used to identify whether something is possible.
A circular economy is based on the principles of designing out waste and pollution: keeping products and materials in use and regenerating natural systems.
code of conduct
The code of conduct for a group or organisation is an agreement on rules of behaviour for the members of that group or organisation.
Working with others towards a shared goal.
The exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, sell or distribute the matter and form of something; such as a literary, musical, or artistic work.
Add a degree or level of accuracy, depth, knowledge and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and quality to analyse.
define - as a component of design thinking
Mode of the design process about bringing clarity and focus to the design space. In a word, the define mode is sense-making.
A concise statement clarifying a project task and defining a need or opportunity to be resolved after some analysis, investigation and research. It usually identifies users, criteria for success, constraints, available resources and the timeframe for a project and may include possible consequences and impacts.
An integral part of educational content where students have the opportunity to work on real-world challenges in a collaborative, team-based environment, applying the lessons learned to the technical problems of the workplace.
A design right protects the overall visual appearance of new and distinctive products.
The overall visual appearance can be a combination of visual features including:
A design right aims to protect the visual appearance of a whole product that:
- has physical and tangible form
- is manufactured or handmade
- is produced on a commercial scale.
Use of strategies for understanding design problems and opportunities, visualising and generating creative and innovative ideas, and analysing and evaluating those ideas that best meet the criteria for success and planning.
A product, service or environment that has been created for a specific purpose or intention as a result of design thinking, design processes and production processes. See also engineered solution, product, service, environment.
A list of criteria a product needs to address. Using the brief as a starting point for research, a specification can be written when more facts are known. Information needs to be found through research. The statements need to be technical, measurable and justified as this then allows them to be used to evaluate the success of the prototype as it is being designed, developed and manufactured through the iterative design process.
A process that typically involves investigating and defining; generating; producing and implementing; evaluating; and collaborating and managing to create a designed solution.
Digital fabrication is a type of manufacturing process where the machine used is controlled by a computer. The most common forms of digital fabrication are:
- CNC machining: where, typically, shapes are cut out of wooden sheets
- 3D printing: where objects are built up out of layers of metal or plastic
- laser cutting: where materials like metal are burnt or melted by a laser beam.
Empathy or empathise - as a component of design thinking
The centrepiece of a human-centered design process. The empathise mode is the work done to understand people, within the context of a design challenge. It is the designer’s effort to understand the way people do things and why, their physical and emotional needs, how they think about world and what is meaningful to them.
A practical application of scientific and mathematical understanding and principles as a part of the process of developing and maintaining solutions for an identified need or opportunity.
engineering design process
A series of steps used by engineering teams to guide them as they develop new solutions, products or systems. The process is cyclical and iterative. It is also called the engineering design cycle.
Technical drawings used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items. Their purpose is to capture all the geometric features of a product or a component and required for a manufacturer to produce that component.
A product, service or environment that has been created for a specific purpose or intention as a result of design thinking, design processes and production processes. See also designed solution.
A project or activity that may be challenging, requires effort and initiative and may have risks.
One of the outputs of technologies processes such as a place or space in which technologies processes operate. An environment may be natural, managed, constructed or digital.
Practices that have minimal impact on an ecosystem's health, allow renewal of natural systems and value environmental qualities that support life.
Measuring performance against established criteria. Estimating nature, quality, ability, extent or significance to make a judgement determining a value.
Fabrication is the process of constructing products by combining typically standardised parts using one or more individual processes.
To form an idea of a particular thing.
ideate - as a component of design thinking
The mode of the design process in which a person concentrates on idea generation.
Industry 4.0 or Industrie 4.0
The digital transformation of manufacturing and production and related industries and value creation processes.
Industrie 4.0 refers to the intelligent networking of machines and processes for industry with the help of information and communication technology.
Industry 4.0 is used interchangeably with the fourth industrial revolution and represents a new stage in the organisation and control of the industrial value chain.
The use of a new idea or method.
Intellectual property (IP)
The property of a person’s mind or proprietary knowledge. The productive new ideas a person creates. It can be an invention, trademark, design, brand or the application of an idea.
internet of things (IoT)
Describes the network of physical objects or ‘things’ that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the internet. These devices range from ordinary household objects to sophisticated industrial tools.
The process of design development involving cyclical inquiry, enabling multiple opportunities to revisit ideas and reflect on their possibilities.
Also sometimes called molecular manufacturing, it is the design, production and application of structures, devices and systems at the nanoscale.
Best, most favourable, under a particular set of circumstances.
A right that is granted for any device, substance, method or process that is new, inventive and useful.
A patent is a legally enforceable right to commercially exploit the invention for the life of the patent.
A selected future identified by a student, used to inform the creation and evaluation of solutions.
One of the outputs of design and production processes. Products are the tangible end results of natural, human, mechanical, manufacturing, electronic or digital processes to meet a need or want.
A context-specific process used to transform technologies into a product, service or environment; for example the steps used for producing a product.
production proposal or production planning The determination, acquisition and arrangement of all facilities and materials necessary for the production of the products.
A set of practices, ethics, and behaviours that members of a particular professional group must adhere to. These sets of standards are frequently agreed to by a governing body that represents the interests of the group.
Examples of professional standards include accountability, confidentiality, honesty, integrity, transparency and objectivity.
An individual or collaborative problem-solving activity undertaken by students that is planned to achieve an articulated aim.
A responsibility for planning, organising, controlling resources, monitoring timelines and activities and completing a project to achieve a goal that meets identified criteria for judging success.
A trial product or model built to test an idea or process to inform further design development. A prototype can be developed in the fields of service, design, electronics or software programming. Its purpose is to see if and how well the design works and is tested by users and systems analysts. It can be used to provide specifications for a real, working product or system rather than a virtual or theoretical one. Prototype is derived from Greek terms that, when translated, mean ‘primitive form’, ‘first’ and ‘impression’.
rapid prototype or rapid prototyping
The process of creating prototypes quickly to visually and functionally evaluate an engineering product design.
A process to protect the shape, configuration, pattern or ornamentation of a product – that is, what gives a product a unique appearance.
A branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture and operation of robots. This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology and bioengineering.
One of the outputs of technologies processes: the end result of processes and production. Services are a less tangible outcome, compared to products, of technologies processes to meet a need or want. They may involve development or maintenance of a system and include; for example, catering, cloud computing, communication, transportation and water management. Services can be communicated by charts, diagrams, models, posters and procedures.
An urban area that has become more efficient, more environmentally friendly or more socially inclusive through the use of digital technologies. The goal of a smart city is to improve its attractiveness to citizens and businesses by enhancing or adding city services.
STEM: science, technology, engineering and mathematics
A teaching philosophy that integrates all four disciplines into a single, cross-disciplinary program which offers instruction in real-world, as opposed to purely academic, applications and teaching methods.
A descriptive list of essential features against which success can be measured. The compilation of criteria involves literacy skills to select and use appropriate terminology.
Supporting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to support their needs.
Sustainability goals (SDGs)
Also known as the Global Goals, they were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity. There are 17 integrated SDGs.
For details, refer to: Sustainable Development Goals.
A holistic approach to the identification and solving of problems, where parts and components of a system, their interactions and interrelationships are analysed individually to see how they influence the functioning of the whole system. This approach enables students to understand systems and work with complexity, uncertainty and risk.
Materials, data, systems, components, tools and equipment used to create solutions for identified needs and opportunities, and the knowledge, understanding and skills used by people involved in the selection and use of these.
A way of distinguishing goods and services from those of another business.