Relates to a sense of beauty or an appreciation of artistic expression.
The act of discerning quality and value of literary texts.
A way of thinking about a situation/idea/character. For example an audience may be subjective, supportive or antagonistic towards something or someone.
It may also refer to system of appraisal comprising: affect (positive or negative feelings), appreciation (evaluations of worth), and judgment (attitudes towards behaviour).
The group of readers, listeners or viewers that the writer, designer, filmmaker or speaker is addressing.
The composer or originator of a work (for example, a novel, film, website, speech, essay, autobiography).
The environment in which a text is responded to or created. Context can include the general social, historical and cultural conditions in which a text is responded to and created (the context of culture) or the specific features of its immediate environment (context of situation). The term is also used to refer to the wording surrounding an unfamiliar word that a reader or listener uses to understand its meaning.
An accepted practice that has developed over time and is generally used and understood, for example the use of specific structural aspects of texts such as in report writing with sections for introduction, background, discussion and recommendations.
Audio, visual or multimodal texts produced through digital or electronic technology which may be interactive and include animations and/or hyperlinks. Examples of digital texts include DVDs, websites, e-literature.
Word groups/phrases used in a way that differ from the expected or everyday usage. They are used in a non-literal way for particular effect (for example: simile – ‘white as a sheet’; metaphor – ‘all the world’s a stage’; personification – ‘the wind grabbed at my clothes’).
Forms of texts
The shape and structure of texts, for example, poetry, novels, short stories, film.
The categories into which texts are grouped. The term has a complex history within literary theory and is often used to distinguish texts on the basis of their subject matter (detective fiction, romance, science fiction, fantasy fiction), form and structure (poetry, novels, short stories).
The features of language that support meaning (for example, sentence structure, noun group/phrase, vocabulary, punctuation, figurative language, framing, camera angles). Choices in language features and text structures together define a type of text and shape its meaning. These choices vary according to the purpose of a text, its subject matter, audience and mode or medium of production.
The arrangement of identifiable repeated or corresponding elements in a text. These include patterns of repetition or similarity (for example, the repeated use of verbs at the beginning of each step in a recipe, or the repetition of a chorus after each verse in a song). The patterns may alternate (for example, the call and response pattern of some games, or the to and fro of a dialogue). Other patterns may contrast (for example, opposing viewpoints in a discussion, or contrasting patterns of imagery in a poem). The language patterns of a text contribute to the distinctive nature of its overall organisation and shape its meaning.
The resources used in the production of texts, including the tools and materials used (for example, digital text and the computer, writing and the pen or the typewriter).
Vocabulary used to discuss language conventions and use (for example, language used to talk about grammatical terms such as ‘sentence’, clause’, conjunction).
The various processes of communication – listening, speaking, reading/viewing and writing/creating. Modes are also used to refer to the semiotic (meaning making) resources associated with these communicative processes, such as sound, print, image and gesture.
Combination of two or more communication modes (for example, print, image and spoken text, as in film or computer presentations).
A story of events or experiences, real or imagined. In literary theory, narrative includes the story (what is narrated) and the discourse (how it is narrated).
Narrative point of view
The ways in which a narrator may be related to the story. For example, the narrator might take the role of first or third person, omniscient or restricted in knowledge of events, reliable or unreliable in interpretation of what happens.
Refers to the way a reader/viewer is positioned by the author in relation to the text and/or how a particular ideology is embedded in a text. For example, a feminist perspective.
Point of view
Refers to the viewpoint of an author, implied audience or characters in a text.
Refers to the language of argument, using persuasive or forceful language.
Language techniques used in argument to persuade audiences for example rhetorical questions, repetition, propositions, figurative language.
Standard Australian English
The variety of spoken and written English language in Australia used in more formal settings such as for official or public purposes, and recorded in dictionaries, style guides and grammars.
While it is always dynamic and evolving, it is recognised as the ‘common language’ of Australians.
Refers to the selection of stylistic features to achieve a particular effect.
The ways in which aspects of texts (such as words, sentences, images) are arranged and how they affect meaning. Style can distinguish the work of individual authors (for example, Jennings’s stories, Lawson’s poems), as well as the work of a particular period (for example, Elizabethan drama, nineteenth-century novels), or of a particular genre or type of text (for example, recipes, scientific articles, play-by-play commentary). Examples of stylistic features are narrative viewpoint, structure of stanzas, juxtaposition, nominalisation, alliteration, metaphor, lexical choice.
The means for communication. Their forms and conventions have developed to help us communicate effectively with a variety of audiences for a range of purposes. Texts can be written, spoken or multimodal and in print or digital/online forms. Multimodal texts combine language with other systems for communication, such as print text, visual images, soundtrack and spoken word as in film or computer presentation media.
The ways in which information is organised in different types of texts (for example, chapter headings, subheadings, tables of contents, indexes and glossaries, overviews, introductory and concluding paragraphs, sequencing, topic sentences, taxonomies, cause and effect). Choices in text structures and language features together define a text type and shape its meaning. Examples of text structures in literary texts include sonnets, monologues, hypertext.
Tone describes the way the ‘voice’ is delivered. For example, the tone of a voice or the tone in a passage of writing could be friendly or angry or persuasive.
Types of texts
Classifications of texts according to the particular purposes they are designed to achieve. In general, in the senior subjects in the Australian Curriculum: English, texts are classified as imaginative, interpretive, analytical or persuasive types of texts although these distinctions are neither static nor discrete and particular texts can belong to more than one category.
Texts whose primary purpose is to identify, examine and draw conclusions about the elements or components that make up other texts. Analytical texts develop an argument or consider or advance an interpretation. Examples of these texts include commentaries, essays in criticism, reflective or discursive responses and reviews.
Texts whose primary purpose is to entertain or provoke thought through their imaginative use of literary elements. They are recognised for their form, style and artistic or aesthetic value. These texts include novels, traditional tales, poetry, stories, plays, fiction for young adults and children including picture books and multimodal texts such as film.
Texts whose primary purpose is to explain and interpret personalities, events, ideas or concepts. They include autobiography, biography, media feature articles, documentary film and other non-fiction. Interpretive rather than informative texts are focused upon in the senior years of schooling.
Whose primary purpose is to put forward a point of view and persuade a reader, viewer or listener. They form a significant part of modern communication in both print and digital environments. They include advertising, debates, arguments, discussions, polemics and influential essays and articles.
In the literary sense, voice can be used to refer to the nature of the voice projected in a text by an author (for example, ‘authorial voice’ in a literary text or ‘expert voice’ in an exposition).
In English grammar voice is used to describe the contrast between such pairs of clauses as ‘The dog bit me’ (active voice) and ‘I was bitten by the dog’ (passive voice). Active and passive clauses differ in the way participant roles are associated with grammatical functions.
In clauses expressing actions, like the above examples, the subject of the active (‘the dog’) has the role of actor, and the object (‘me’) the role of patient, whereas in the passive the subject (‘I’) has the role of patient and the object of the preposition by (‘the dog’) the role of actor.
In clauses that describe situations other than actions, such as ‘Everyone admired the minister’ and ‘The minister was admired by everyone’, the same grammatical difference is found, so that the object of the active (‘the minister’) corresponds to the subject of the passive, and the subject of the active (‘everyone’) corresponds to the object of the preposition ‘by’.