Use, utilise or employ in a particular situation.
Acceptable; suitable or fitting for a particular purpose, circumstance, context etc.
A particular part of a feature of something: a facet, phase or part of a whole
An outlook or a specific feeling about something. Our values underlie our attitudes. Attitudes can be expressed by what we say, do and wear.
The group of readers, listeners or viewers that the writer, designer, filmmaker or speaker is addressing. Audience includes students in the classroom, an individual, the wider community, review writers, critics and the implied audience.
Simple and not complicated, so able to provide the base or starting point from which something can develop.
The feeling of being certain that something exists or is true.
To suggest a lot of ideas for a future activity very quickly before considering some of them more carefully.
Make clear or intelligible; explain; make a statement or situation less confused and more comprehensible.
Understand the meaning or nature of; grasp mentally.
comprehension and reading strategies
A set of processes used by readers to make meaning from texts.
Key comprehension strategies include:
- activating and using prior knowledge
- identifying literal information explicitly stated in the text
- making inferences based on information in the text and their own prior knowledge
- predicting likely future events in a text
- visualising by creating mental images of elements in a text
- summarising and organising information from a text
- integrating ideas and information in texts
- critically reflecting on content, structure, language and images used to construct meaning in a text.
Reading strategies – limited range:
- use knowledge of letter sounds and common letter patterns to decode words
- re-read to clarify meaning and read on to confirm meaning
- adjust reading rate
- attempt to self-correct when the meaning is disrupted
- use sound, visual and meaning cues, knowledge of high frequency words and topic related vocabulary
- use skimming and scanning strategies
- use strategies to locate specific details
- use knowledge of the topic, sentence patterns and text structure
- make personal predictions about what might happen next
- make comparisons with their own experiences to other texts
- discuss reading strategies used at word and sentence level
- ask for assistance with some words.
Reading strategies – increasing range:
- break words into chunks
- use self-correcting methods when reading such as re-reading, reading on, reading back, sub vocalising
- adjust reading strategies for different texts
- consider the context of unknown words
- use sound, visual meaning cues, knowledge of high frequency words and topic related vocabulary
- use knowledge of grammar, sentence and texts structures, vocabulary
- predict likely events, actions and outcomes, before and during reading and explain their reasons
- make connections between themselves and the text, between texts they have read and between texts and their experiences of the world
- determine importance
- generate appropriate key words form a text for a specific purpose
- discuss and compare with others the visual images they create when reading
- discuss their selection of reading strategies at word, sentence and whole text levels
- self-monitor and discuss the effectiveness of their own reading strategies.
Convey knowledge or understandings to others.
Active listening strategies: verbal and non-verbal skills and behaviour used to promote accurate listening.
Oral interaction skills: interactions, open questions, answers, feedback, exchanges, discussion and argumentation.
Oral presentation skills:
- nonverbal – audience contact, body language and poise
- delivery – articulation, voice qualities; for example, articulation, volume, intonation, pause
- content – enthusiasm for topic, topic knowledge, organisation.
Connecting is recognising relationships between texts and between texts and own lives.
In this course learners make connections between:
- texts and their own life
- elements of texts; for example, words and images
- common ideas, experiences and stories
- identifiable links between texts and contexts.
Formed after careful thought.
The environment in which a text is responded to or created. Context can include the general social, historical and cultural conditions in which a text is responded to and created, the context of culture, or the specific features of its immediate environment, context of situation. The term is also used to refer to the wording surrounding an unfamiliar word that a reader or listener uses to understand its meaning.
Shows the exercise of restraint or direction over; held in check; restrained, managed or kept within certain bounds.
An accepted practice that has developed over time and is generally used and understood; for example, the use of specific structural aspects of texts such as in report writing with sections for introduction, background, discussion and recommendations. Conventions can be techniques, features or elements that belong to a genre. In order to belong to a particular genre, a text should adhere to, abide by or follow the conventions of that genre.
Develop or produce spoken, written or multimodal texts in print or digital forms.
A response to a text or an idea set in the real world.
Relating to or representing more than one branch of knowledge.
Give a detailed account of characteristics or features.
In English: begin to build an opinion or idea.
Audio, visual or multimodal texts produced through digital or electronic technology, which may be interactive and include animations or hyperlinks. Examples of digital texts include DVDs, websites, e-literature.
For the purposes of this document, the term discipline is used to describe a recognised field of study or body of knowledge in a well-planned structure. Disciplines are defined by specialist knowledge, theories, concepts, methodology and terminology.
Talk or write about a topic, taking into account different issues and ideas.
Of various kinds or forms; different from each other.
Successful in producing the intended, desired or expected result; meeting the assigned purpose.
A component or constituent part of a complex whole; a fundamental, essential or irreducible part of a composite entity.
To participate or become involved in.
Students engage critically with a text when they make judgements about a text based on systematic analysis.
In this course critical engagement involves distinguishing between fact and opinion; learning to interpret basic texts and develop opinions with some reasoning.
Students engage personally when they experience interest, pleasure and personal significance in texts and the ways they are constructed.
In this course, engaging personally involves developing students’ awareness that their choices and preferences for texts and authors are shaped by their own experience and interests. They share different views, infer meaning, express and justify their own opinions and extend their experiences of texts.
Positive or negative language that judges the worth of something. It includes language to express feelings and opinions, to make judgments about aspects of people such as their behaviour, and to assess quality of objects such as literary works.
Evaluations can be made explicit; for example, through the use of adjectives, as in: ‘she’s a lovely girl’, ‘he’s an awful man’, or ‘how wonderful!’. However, they can be left implicit; for example, ‘he dropped the ball when he was tackled’, or ‘Mary put her arm round the child while she wept’.
Texts that are encountered in people’s daily lives; for example, transport schedules, maps, emails, invitations, casual conversations, making an appointment with a doctor or dentist or health centre, an interaction with a retail person, a waiter taking orders, storytelling.
Exhibition refers to projects, presentations or projects through which students exhibit what they have learned, usually as a way of demonstrating whether and to what degree they have achieved expected learning outcomes
An exhibition may take many forms or text types.
In this course, ‘exhibit’ refers to sharing information and or thinking, displaying or presenting student work with familiar audiences, including peers, classmates.
Interacting with others is part of this process.
Adjustments should be made based on learners’ capabilities.
To look into both closely and broadly; scrutinise; inquire into or discuss something in detail.
To convey, show or communicate; for example, a thought, opinion, feeling, emotion, idea or viewpoint in words, art, music or movement; convey or suggest a representation of; or depict.
Previously encountered in prior learning activities.
The language we use and the description of language as a system. In describing language, attention is paid to both structure or form and meaning or function at the level of the word, the sentence and the text.
In this course, the word has an open meaning and can be interpreted as understandings, thoughts, notions, opinions, views or beliefs.
To think of an idea or ideas.
Establish or indicate who or what someone or something is.
Their primary purpose is to entertain through their imaginative use of literary elements. They are recognised for their form, style and artistic or aesthetic value. These texts include novels, traditional tales, poetry, stories, plays, fiction for young adults and children including picture books and multimodal texts such as film.
Their primary purpose is to provide information. They include texts that are culturally important in society and are valued for their informative content, as a store of knowledge and for their value as part of everyday life. These texts include explanations and descriptions of natural phenomena, recounts of events, instructions and directions, rules and laws and news bulletins.
Students need to:
identify what they want to know and what they can achieve
- pose researchable questions
- brainstorm or ideate
- locate appropriate sources of information
- gather, sort and organise information
- engage personally: make connections with texts and between texts
- engage critically: make judgements about texts and the ways they are constructed through basic analysis
- experiment: apply knowledge and skills creatively and critically to develop deep understanding: experiment with language, form, mode and medium to express ideas and opinions
- make decisions and put ideas into action
- present or exhibit information in appropriate ways
- reflect on what they have learned and the inquiry process
- apply their knowledge.
In this course they do this through the key elements of transdisciplinary learning:
engage and ideate
- connect and apply
- exhibit and reflect.
In turn, inquiry skills are enacted and developed through the following learning processes:
- engaging critically
- engaging personally
Matters of personal or public concern that are in dispute; things which directly or indirectly affect a person or members of a society and are considered to be problems. Many issues are raised in texts and it is for the reader or audience to identify these.
In this course, the word has an open meaning and can be interpreted as understandings, thoughts, notions, opinions, views or beliefs.
Draw meaning from.
Of crucial importance.
The features of language that support meaning; for example, sentence structure, noun group or phrase, vocabulary, punctuation, figurative language, framing, camera angles. Choices in language features and text structures together define a type of text and shape its meaning. These choices vary according to the purpose of a text, its subject matter, audience and mode or medium of production.
To use the sense of hearing as well as a range of active behaviours to comprehend information received through gesture, body language and other sensory systems.
Identify where something is found.
A resource used in the production of texts, including tools and materials used; for example, digital text and a computer, writing and a pen or a typewriter.
The various processes of communication: listening, speaking, reading, viewing, writing and creating. Modes are also used to refer to the semiotic or meaning-making resources associated with these communicative processes, such as sound, print, image and gesture.
mode appropriate features or conventions
written; for example, conventional spelling and punctuation
- spoken or signed; for example, pronunciation, phrasing and pausing, audibility and clarity, volume, pace, silence
- non-verbal; for example, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, stance, movement
- complementary features, including digital features such as graphics, still and moving images, design elements, music and sound effects.
The activity of making changes to computer or games software or equipment, in order to create your own version.
Uses a combination of at least two modes; for example, spoken, written, delivered at the same time, to communicate ideas and information to a live or virtual audience, for a particular purpose; the selected modes are integrated so that each mode contributes significantly to the response.
A combination of two or more communication modes; for example, print, image and spoken text, as in film or computer presentations.
Behaviours, other than words, that transmit meaning; for example, body language, inflexion, eye contact, posture.
Clearly perceptible or evident; easily seen, recognised or understood.
A thought or belief about something or someone.
Arrange, order; form as or into a whole consisting of interdependent or coordinated parts, especially for harmonious or united action.
Sketch in general terms; indicate the main features of.
Distinguished or different from others or from the ordinary; noteworthy.
Capable of changing someone’s ideas, opinions or beliefs; appearing worthy of approval or acceptance; of an argument or statement, communicating reasonably or credibly.
Their primary purpose is to put forward a point of view and persuade a reader, viewer or listener. They form a significant part of modern communication in both print and digital environments. They include advertising, debates, arguments, discussions, polemics and influential essays and articles.
point of view
The opinion or viewpoint expressed by an individual in a text; for example, an author, a narrator, a character or an implied reader.
A talk or by other means to give information about something.
Producing is another word for creating meaning, constructing or creating texts and those texts might be written or multimodal. There is a range of non-fiction forms that students use to produce texts; for example, transactional texts: lists or applications; informative texts: reports or investigations; expository texts: essays; and persuasive texts: letters to the editor or documentaries. Students may produce fiction texts; for example, short stories, blogs, poetry, plays, short films or YouTube stories or uploads. Students might engage in discussions, role plays, interview scenarios, debates, public speaking and slideshow presentations in live, recorded and online environments
To process words, symbols or actions to derive or construct meaning. Reading includes interpreting, critically analysing and reflecting upon the meaning of a wide range of written and visual, print and non-print texts.
Think about deeply and carefully.
In this course, learners use reflective thinking to consider why things happen and what can be learnt from these experiences.
The degree of formality or informality of language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Bearing upon or connected with the matter in hand; to the purpose; applicable and pertinent; having a direct bearing on.
Use words, images, symbols or signs to convey meaning.
Refers to the way people, events, issues or subjects are presented in a text. The term implies that texts are not mirrors of the real world; they are constructions of ‘reality’. These constructions are partially shaped through the writer’s use of conventions and techniques.
Provide an answer; reply.
To look at or consider again an idea, piece of writing, etc, in order to correct or improve it.
Easy to understand, deal with and use; not complex or complicated; plain; not elaborate or artificial; may concern a single or basic aspect; involving few elements, components or steps.
Clearly defined or identified; precise and clear in making statements or issuing instructions; having a special application or reference; explicit, or definite; peculiar or proper to something, as qualities, characteristics, effects, etc.
Without difficulty; uncomplicated; direct; easy to do or understand.
Give a pattern, organisation or arrangement to; construct or arrange according to a plan.
In English, arrangement of words into larger units; for example, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs and whole texts, in line with cultural, intercultural and textual conventions.
Arranged in a given organised sequence.
Corroborated; given greater credibility by providing evidence.
Communication of meaning produced in any medium that incorporates language, including sound, print, film, digital and multimedia representations; texts include written, spoken, nonverbal or visual communication of meaning; they may be extended unified works or series of related pieces.
text structure or structures
The ways in which information is organised in different types of texts; for example, chapter headings, subheadings, tables of contents, indexes and glossaries, overviews, introductory and concluding paragraphs, sequencing, topic sentences, taxonomies, cause and effect. Choices in text structures and language features together define a text type and shape its meaning. Examples of text structures in literary texts include sonnets, monologues and hypertext.
Classifications of texts according to the particular purposes they are designed to achieve. In general, in the senior courses in the English curriculum, texts are classified as imaginative, interpretive, persuasive or analytical types of texts, although these distinctions are neither static nor discrete and particular texts can belong to more than one category.
Texts whose primary purpose is to identify, examine and draw conclusions about the elements or components that make up other texts. Analytical texts develop an argument or consider or advance an interpretation. Examples of these texts include commentaries, essays in criticism, reflective or discursive responses and reviews.
Texts whose primary purpose is to entertain or provoke thought through their imaginative use of literary elements. They are recognised for their form, style and artistic or aesthetic value. These texts include novels, traditional tales, poetry, stories, plays, fiction for young adults and children, including picture books, and multimodal texts, such as film.
Texts whose primary purpose is to explain and interpret personalities, events, ideas, representations or concepts. They include autobiography, biography, feature articles, documentary, satire and allegory.
Texts whose primary purpose is to put forward a viewpoint and persuade a reader, viewer or listener. They form a significant part of modern communication in both print and digital environments. They include advertising, debates, arguments, discussions, polemics and essays and articles.
text types: affiliative
Affiliative texts are those texts which involve “memberships, formal and informal, in online communities centred around various forms of media” (Jenkins et. al. 2006), largely, social media sites or platforms, while collaborative texts involve people working together, formally or informally, online “to complete tasks and develop new knowledge (such as through Wikipedia, alternative reality games, spoiling)” (Jenkins et. al. 2006) and can be aided by specialised ‘collaboration software’ or accomplished via social media; for example, as with crowdsourcing.
An idea, concern or argument developed in a text. A recurring element; for example, the subject of a text may be love, and its theme could be how love involves sacrifice. A work may have more than one theme.
A division of, or sub-section within a module; all topics or sub-topics within a module are interrelated.
For the purposes of this document, transdisciplinary is used to describe an approach to teaching and learning which enables students to use learning or ways of working from multiple disciplines to explore a relevant concept, issue, or problem. It integrates the perspectives of a range of disciplines, resulting in a new and deeper understanding of the concept, issue or problem.
Not previously encountered in prior learning activities.
Operate or put into effect; apply knowledge or rules to put theory into practice.
Characteristics, qualities, philosophical and emotional stances, e.g. moral principles or standards often shared with others in a cultural group.
Observe with purpose, understanding and critical awareness. Some students participate in viewing activities by listening to an adult or peer describing the visual features of text, diagrams, pictures and multimedia.
Voice, in a literary sense, is the distinct personality of a piece of writing.
Voice can be created through the use of syntax, punctuation, vocabulary choices, persona and dialogue.
Texts often contain ‘multiple voices’. These are the views, positions, ideas and perspectives of individuals or groups.
It is important to recognise the various voices in a text, how they relate to one another, and how the creator of a text uses these to shape audience response.
A single distinct element of speech or writing that communicates meaning.
Plan, compose, edit and publish texts in print or digital forms. Writing usually involves activities using pencils, pens, word processors; or using drawings, models, photos to represent text; or using a scribe to record responses or produce recorded responses.
The writing process usually takes the form of:
Planning and rehearsing: the generation, selection and sorting of ideas to write about, consideration of purpose and audience which will influence genre selection and
- Drafting or composing: the recording of ideas with attention to meaning making, grammar, spelling, punctuation and handwriting or keyboarding.
- Revising: the revisiting of the text, often as a result of feedback from peers or the teacher, to improve and enhance the writing.
- Editing and proofreading: the polishing of the draft in readiness for publication, which includes editing for spelling, text layout, grammar, capitalisation and punctuation.
- Publishing: the preparation of the text for sharing with an audience, with attention given to the form and style of the text.