The extent to which a measurement result represents the quantity it purports to measure; an accurate measurement result includes an estimate of the true value and an estimate of the uncertainty.
To examine, scrutinise, explore, review, consider in detail for the purpose of finding meaning or relationships, and identifying patterns, similarities and differences.
Animal ethics involves consideration of respectful, fair and just treatment of animals. The use of animals in science involves consideration of replacement (substitution of insentient materials for conscious living animals), reduction (using only the minimum number of animals to satisfy research statistical requirements) and refinement (decrease in the incidence or severity of ‘inhumane’ procedures applied to those animals that still have to be used).
Use, utilise or employ in a particular situation.
Determine the value, significance or extent of (something).
The application of science and technology to living organisms, as well as parts, products and models thereof, to alter living or non-living materials for human purposes.
Conveys knowledge and/or understandings to others.
Consisting of multiple interconnected parts or factors.
Examine the component parts of an issue or information, for example identifying the premise of an argument and its plausibility, illogical reasoning or faulty conclusions.
Evaluation of an issue or information that includes considering important factors and available evidence in making critical judgement that can be justified.
The plural of datum; the measurement of an attribute, for example, the volume of gas or the type of rubber. This does not necessarily mean a single measurement: it may be the result of averaging several repeated measurements. Data may be quantitative or qualitative and be from primary or secondary sources.
Give a practical exhibition as an explanation.
Give an account of characteristics or features.
Plan and evaluate the construction of a product or process.
Talk or write about a topic, taking into account different issues and ideas.
Provide a detailed examination and substantiated judgement concerning the merit, significance or value of something.
In science, evidence is data that is considered reliable and valid and which can be used to support a particular idea, conclusion or decision. Evidence gives weight or value to data by considering its credibility, acceptance, bias, status, appropriateness and reasonableness.
Provide additional information that demonstrates understanding of reasoning and/or application.
Previously encountered in prior learning activities.
The categories into which texts are grouped; genre distinguishes texts on the basis of their subject matter, form and structure (for example, scientific reports, field guides, explanations, procedures, biographies, media articles, persuasive texts, narratives).
A tentative explanation for an observed phenomenon, expressed as a precise and unambiguous statement that can be supported or refuted by experiment.
Establish or indicate who or what someone or something is.
A scientific process of answering a question, exploring an idea or solving a problem that requires activities such as planning a course of action, collecting data, interpreting data, reaching a conclusion and communicating these activities. Investigations can include observation, research, field work, laboratory experimentation and manipulation of simulations.
Show how an argument or conclusion is right or reasonable.
The difference between the measurement result and a currently accepted or standard value of a quantity.
Spoken, print, graphic or electronic communications with a public audience. Media texts can be found in newspapers, magazines and on television, film, radio, computer software and the internet.
The various processes of communication – listening, speaking, reading/viewing and writing/creating.
A representation that describes, simplifies, clarifies or provides an explanation of the workings, structure or relationships within an object, system or idea.
Data collected directly by a person or group.
Reasoned argument/conclusion: one that is sound, well-grounded, considered and thought out.
The degree to which an assessment instrument or protocol consistently and repeatedly measures an attribute achieving similar results for the same population.
Data that has been judged to have a high level of reliability; reliability is the degree to which an assessment instrument or protocol consistently and repeatedly measures an attribute achieving similar results for the same population.
A verbal, visual, physical or mathematical demonstration of understanding of a science concept or concepts. A concept can be represented in a range of ways and using multiple modes.
To locate, gather, record, attribute and analyse information in order to develop understanding.
Evaluations performed to identify, assess and control hazards in a systematic way that is consistent, relevant and applicable to all school activities. Requirements for risk assessments related to particular activities will be determined by jurisdictions, schools or teachers as appropriate.
Data collected by a person or group other than the person or group using the data.
Choose in preference to another or others.
Work out a correct solution to a problem.
Combine elements (information/ideas/components) into a coherent whole.
A group of interacting objects, materials or processes that form an integrated whole. Systems can be open or closed.
A set of concepts, claims and/or laws that can be used to explain and predict a wide range of related observed or observable phenomena. Theories are typically founded on clearly identified assumptions, are testable, produce reproducible results and have explanatory power.
Range of values for a measurement result, taking account of the likely values that could be attributed to the measurement result given the measurement equipment, procedure and environment.
Perceive what is meant, grasp an idea, and to be thoroughly familiar with.
Not previously encountered in prior learning activities.
The extent to which tests measure what was intended; the extent to which data, inferences and actions produced from tests and other processes are accurate.